For the first time, eleven institutes of the Fraunhofer Group for Microelectronics and the two Leibniz institutes FBH and IHP have been combining their expertise within the framework of the Research Fab Microelectronics Germany (FMD) since 2017 in order to achieve and expand a new quality level in the research, development and (pilot) production of semiconductor-based micro- and nanosystems. With more than 2,000 scientists, the FMD is one of the largest and world-leading R&D associations for micro and nanoelectronics applications and systems in Europe. As a global driver of innovation, the FMD provides a unique range of expertise and infrastructures, while contributing to Germany and Europe's leading position in research and development. This implies bridging the gap between basic research and cross-technology solutions, right through to customer-specific product development. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research provided funding for the modernization of the research infrastructure of the thirteen participating institutes from 2017 to 2021. See the 13 co-operating institutes here .